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FACULTY OF GEOGRAPHY AND NATURAL RESOURCES DEPARTMENT OF GEODESY AND GEOINFORMATICS FOR STUDENTS OF THE FACULTY OF GEODESY, CARTOGRAPHY AND CADASTRE ORGANIZED WITHIN THE SUBJECT “GEODESY”ABOUT GEODETIC TRAINING AND FIELD PRACTICE

The main economic activity of mankind has long been associated with the use of land and its minerals. A consistent and purposeful solution to this problem is the study of the shape of the Earth and measurements on its surface. This is provided by the science of geodesy.
The purpose of geodesy is to teach students the types of geodetic measurements performed on the ground, theoretical and practical knowledge of measuring instruments and their work, the creation of plans, maps and land profiles, the use of modern geodetic instruments and technologies, various engineering - give practical skills in solving geodetic problems.
The task of the science of geodesy is the types of geodetic measurements performed on the surface and the structure of measuring instruments, measurements, the development of measurement results and the preparation of plans, maps and profiles, the state of networks of III and IV levels, triangulation density and polygonometric measurements performed when building networks and learning to develop them results.
Field geodetic practice is an important part of the training of specialists in the field of "Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre" and is of great importance for students. Such field operations will be carried out at a specially equipped Charvak training ground.
The internship gives students the opportunity to expand, deepen and consolidate the theoretical knowledge gained at the university, as well as teach them to independently perform geodetic work, develop results, follow the field work schedule, and observe labor discipline. At the same time, students will be able to properly handle geodetic instruments, independently perform geodetic measurements, perform work in stages, ensuring the necessary accuracy of measurements.
The most important task in carrying out geodetic work is the preliminary construction of the basic network. The basic geodetic network is a specially defined (fixed) set of surface points (geodesic points), the location of which is determined by a system of common coordinates and heights. Typically, such core networks are located with the same density for the entire territory of a particular state, and their coordinates are determined in a single system with high accuracy. The task of such a network is to map the entire territory of the state, to ensure its work for scientific and practical purposes.
The principle of constructing geodetic networks is based on the transition from general to particular, i.e., the transition from very high-precision work over a large area to low-precision work on small areas. Accordingly, geodetic networks are divided into state, sealing and survey geodetic networks.
In the field practice of geodesy, cartography and cadastre, students build a compacted geodetic network on the ground (2-level triangulation), in which the length of the base (with an electronic taximeter Trimble M3 DR), horizontal and vertical angles of each point (with theodolites 2T5, 2T5K). Mathematical measurements were carried out and the coordinates and heights of the network points were calculated. The coordinates of the points were determined by measuring with a theodolite in order to compact the designated points using the methods of direct and reverse geodetic sections.
When developing high-rise networks, a network of single-node 3-level state levels was built, with 3-level leveling (with N3 levels and solid lattice rails) in the forward and reverse directions, depending on the nodal point on each road, they did. The leveling results were mathematically processed and the absolute height of the nodal point was calculated.