History of the Department of Physical Geography
Faculty of Geography and Natural Resources of National University of Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek
The history of the Department of Physical Geography dates back to 1920, when the Department of Geography of Turkestan was established at the military faculty of the Central Asian State University.
Independently, the Department of Physical Geography, its activities have begun since 1935 (the head of the department was prof.N.L.Korzhenevsky). In those years, members of the department conducted research on geomorphology, to study the physiographic conditions of individual regions of Central Asia.
In 1943, a member of the department, one of the first Uzbek geographers N.D. Dalimov defended his thesis on the topic "Comprehensive physical and geographical characteristics of the Nurata mountains." N.D.Dalimov made a great contribution to the development of geography and his region and in the preparation of scientific and pedagogical personnel. For these merits, he was awarded the title "Honored Scientist of Uzbekistan".
In the mid-1940s, famous scientists began to work at the department - honored scientists of Uzbekistan, geomorphologist Yu.A. Skvortsov and climatologist L.N. Babushkin. They conducted research on in-depth research. This became the basis for the foundation of the scientific school “Geology and Geomorphology of the Quaternary Period”.
In 1950−1960 Kh.H.Hasanov, a member of the department, conducted research on the history of geography, toponymy and terminology, and studied the geographical heritage of Central Asian travelers.
R.U. Rakhimbekov began to study the history of the geographical study of the nature of Central Asia from 1960s. In 1970, his major monograph on this topic was published. Based on the rich factual material collected over the years, he comprehensively analyzed and justified the formation of the Central Asian Ecological-Geographical Scientific School of Kashkarov-Korovin.
Until the 1970s, the department of L.N. Babushkin and N.A. Kogai dealt with the problems of complex physiographic zoning, and Yu.A.Skvortsov and O.Yu.Poslavskaya devoted to research on geomorphology and quaternary geology.
Scientists of the department N.D.Dolimov, Kh.Kh.Hasanov, P.N.Gulyamov and R.U.Rakhimbekov were engaged in translating popular science and educational literature from Russian into Uzbek.
Until the early 1990s, the department together with the main research areas conducted research related to the geographical foundations of environmental protection, history and methodology of geography, paleogeography, as well as the problem of the Aral Sea (A.A.Rafikov).
On the initiative of Professor Kh.H.Hasanov, by order No. 94 of the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Special Education of the Republic of Uzbekistan on February 24, 1986, the Department of Methods of Teaching Geography was established.
The main task of the department was the development in our country of methods of teaching geography in secondary and higher educational institutions, the expansion of scientific research in this area, and the improvement of teacher training.
In 2005, the department of methods of teaching geography merged with the department of physical geography and became known as the department of physical geography and methods of teaching geography.
Members of the department took an active part in the publication of the National Encyclopedia of Uzbekistan. PNGulomov and Sh.S.Zokirov are members of the editorial board of the geographical department of the National Encyclopedia. In addition, the article M. Mamatkulov, I.A. Khasanov, U.K. Abdunazarov, M.T. Mirakmalov takes place in each volume of the encyclopedia.
Nowadays, the department conducted a number of fundamental, applied, innovative projects. Along with the faculty, young research scientists, master degree students take an active part in scientific research.
In subsequent years, new scientific works of representatives of the middle generation — representatives of physical geographers Sh. Zokirov, P. N. Gulyamov, M. Mamatkulov, A. A. Rafikov, H. Vakhobov, and others — were published in the years of independence.
A great contribution to the development of physical geography was made by the works of associate professor Sh.Z. Zakirov, one of the leading landscape scientists of Uzbekistan. He based on the analysis of extensive scientific and educational literature, expeditionary works, deeply studied the dynamics and development of natural landscapes, taking into account landscape-forming factors. Enriched landscape science with fresh ideas, especially, in the section of micro-and mezolanshaftology.
Later, in collaboration with B.Yu.Egamov, he published in the Uzbek language the textbooks “The History of Geography: From Eratostand to Koshgari” (2012) and “The History of Geography” (2015) in collaboration with H.R. Toshev. Its modest scientific heritage is used as an important and rich source for scientific research over the years of independence.
The scientific works of associate professor P.N.Gulyamov are devoted to the issues of scientific analysis of the relationship between man and nature, the geographical foundations of environmental management, the rational use of natural resources, the organization of human economic activity, toponymy and geographical terminology. In 2000, he published his works in Uzbek language teaching aids - “Toponymy and geographical terminology”, in 2009 “Man and Nature”, “Physical Geography of Central Asia” (2002).
P.N.Gulyamov is the author and co-author of 6 textbooks on geography, 3 manuals for teachers, 10 textbooks for university students and 8 manuals for students and teachers. The textbooks that he created for secondary schools have repeatedly become winners in the Best Textbook contests, and the Geographic Atlas of Uzbekistan, published by Professor T. Mirzaliyev and a number of co-authors, was declared the winner of the 2000 Contest “The Author of the Best Textbooks and Teaching Aids”.
The dictionary, which is intended for schoolchildren "School explanatory dictionary of geographical terms and concepts" (1994), is also widely used today. The fruitful work of PNGuliamova was recognized as worthy and was awarded the state prize by the honored educational worker of Uzbekistan.
M. Mamatkulov is the author of 3 textbooks for students of general education and secondary specialized educational institutions, 4 textbooks for students and 4 monographs on geography, and also conducts extensive scientific research in the field of geomorphology and karstology.
His non-fiction Uzbek-language book Wonders of Nature (2009) was warmly received by the general public.
Asamutdin Zaynutdinov (1940-2015), who successfully worked on long-term scientific expeditions in Kyzylkum, Karakalpakstan, Chirchik-Akhangaran valley, Turkestan mountains, became independent members of the department during the years of independence and worked at the department until the end of his life. In the early years of independence, he took an active part in geological and geomorphological studies of the Charvak recreational zone, the dam of the Hodzhimushkent reservoir, in the area of the recreation center Beldersay and the Tallimardzhanskaya TPP in the Kashkadarya region.
In 2005, A.Zainutdinov published in co-authors the textbook for universities in the Uzbek language “General Geography”.
Candidate of geographical sciences, associate professor I.A.Hasanov is known as an active participant in physiographic research and expeditions. His main scientific works are devoted to physical geography, assessment of natural complexes, land reclamation and recreational geography. In 2007 and 2010, I.A.Khasanov co-authored the manual “Physical Geography of Uzbekistan” in 2 parts.
Uktam Kabuldzhanovich Abdunazarov (1942) for the first time systematically studied buried soils - the ancient soil layers of Central Asia, which are of great importance in the field of paleogeography, stratigraphy and engineering geology. He, together with supervisors prof. I. Stepanov, scientifically substantiated the paleogeographic and stratigraphic significance of ancient soils, buried soils in sediments of Central Asia.
The scientific works of A.A.Sagatov (1943-2005) were devoted to geology and geomorphology, urban planning, physical-geographical zoning of the territory of Uzbekistan for the purpose of urban planning, evaluation of the relief from the point of view of various structures, as well as the classification of physical-geographical research methods. In 1993 he defended his thesis on the topic “Analysis of the physiographic conditions of Uzbekistan for urban planning” under the guidance of Honored Scientist of Uzbekistan, Doctor of Geographical Sciences, Professor N.A. Kogay. He published textbooks for university students in the Uzbek language, such as Geography Test Tasks (1993), Geomorphology Test Tasks (1995, co-author), Fundamentals of Geology (2000, co-author), Physical Methods -geographic research "(2001). The textbook "Geography" for the 6th grade (Physical geography of continents and oceans) for secondary schools, as well as a teacher‘s manual on the geography of continents and oceans is currently used in the public education system of our country.
From the first years of national independence, young specialists are involved in the composition of physical geographers. Among them is a new generation of professors, teachers N.I. Sabitova, Z.S.Saidkarimova, R.Yusupov, M.T.Mirakmalov, later Sh.M.Sharipov, H.B. Nikadambaeva, N.T. Shamuratova, B.Yu. Egamov, R.A. Ibrahimova. They, along with leading faculty members, conduct pedagogical activities and fruitful research in various fields of physical geography.
Most of the scientific works of Doctor of Geographical Sciences, Professor N.I. Sabitova (1954) are devoted to environmental protection, the development of scientific bases for improving soil fertility, the study of the reclamation state of natural complexes, the use of water resources and environmental problems. At the same time, she is actively involved in a number of scientific developments, as well as in fundamental and applied projects.
The young generation of physical geographers attracted to the department, from the first years of independence, began to work on new directions. They conducted their scientific research in the framework of geosystems, natural-geographical complexes and subregions, narrow branches of physical geography.
Z.S.Saidkarimova deals with the assessment and prediction of landscape changes during the mining of minerals, as well as the role of exogenous processes in the development of physiographic complexes.
M.T.Mirakmalov deals with the issues of physiographic terminology, toponymy and geographical linguistics. He co-authored with associate professor P.N. Gulyamov in Latin and published a textbook "Toponymy and Geographical Terminology" (2005), "Toponymy in Geography" (2008), the monograph "Popular Physical-Geographical Terms" (2009), co-authored "Toponyms Vobkent district "(2017), as well as co-authored a textbook on Geography (2013, 2017) for 6th grade, for secondary school teachers in co-authorship" Practical classes in physical geography "(2015), also published an additional textbook" Stars , Sun, Moon "for elementary school students. M.Mirakmalov is an active participant in the development of the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On the names of geographical objects".
Candidate of Geographical Sciences, Associate Professor Sh.M.Sharipov conducts research on geoecology, landscape science, environmental protection and rational use of natural resources.
His research on the study of landscapes and geoecological problems of the Tashkent region contributed to a number of scientific innovations and approaches to the main forms of anthropogenic impact on landscapes, their geoecological approach to the study of landscapes, assessment of landscape sustainability, geoecological zoning, geoecological assessment and optimization. Sh.M. Sharipov issued a landscape map of the Tashkent region (scale 1: 200000; 2011), a landscape map of Ugam-Chatkal State National Park (scale 1: 100000; (2017), “Map of measures for the conservation and rational use of landscapes of the Tashkent region (scale 1: 100000; (2017), as well as in collaboration with A. Rafikov, the textbook Geoecology (2014), the monograph Environmental Protection and Geococology (2016) were published. The textbook Geoecology (2018) and in collaboration with 3 second and 4th grades of secondary schools "Natural Science" (2016, 2017) and "Applied Geography" for 10-year Class (2017).
The scientific works of associate professor Kh.B.Nikadambayeva are devoted to the use of advanced methods and training technologies in teaching physical geography, methods of introducing interactive teaching methods in natural science education, problems of using computer technologies in teaching geography of Uzbekistan. She published “Methods of using computer technologies in teaching physical geography of Uzbekistan” (Monograph, 2015), “Physical Geography of Uzbekistan” (Study Guide, 2017), moreover, in 2011 the State Patent Office of the Republic of Uzbekistan issued a patent No. DGU02171 methodical support of the physical geography of Uzbekistan, and in 2012 a certificate No. DGU 02532 was issued for an electronic textbook on the subject “Physical Geography of Uzbekistan”.
N.T. Shamuratova is engaged in ecotourism, physiographic aspects of ecotourism. It was the first in Uzbekistan to substantiate the physiographic aspects of ecotourism, developed the principles of regional ecotourism. Her research is reflected in the book "The Basics of Ecotourism" (2007, 2013, in collaboration). In the co-authorship of N. Shamuratova, for the first time in Uzbekistan, a map of ecotourism districts and routes of the Republic of Uzbekistan on a scale of 1: 1 000 000 was created.
R.A.Ibrahimova substantiated the scientific and methodological aspects of the allocation of the Aral Physico-geographical District. She proved that in the dried bottom of the Aral mine and adjacent territories, the Aral physiographic district stands out.
B.Yu.Egamov deals with the history of geography, geomorphology, methods of teaching geography. His scientific works are devoted to Jadidism - the time of the national Renaissance. The young researcher, jointly with Professor M. Mamatkulov, published a textbook “Geology and Geomorphology” for direction 5311500 - Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre, as well as a textbook “Geomorphology, with basic geology” for direction 5141100 - Hydrology (Land Hydrology).
Over the past hundred years, 5 members of the department have become Honored Scientists of Uzbekistan and one member has become an Honored Worker of Public Education of Uzbekistan.
5140600 – Geography
5140700 – Hydrometrology
5141100 - Hydrology (real hydrology)
5311500 - Geodesy, cartography and cadastre (by industry)
5A140602 - Geography (by object of study)
11.00.01 - Physical Geography
11.00.05 - Environmental protection and rational use of natural resources.
The department conducts classes in the following disciplines:
In the direction of "Geography":
General physical geography;
Physical geography of Uzbekistan;
Physical geography of continents and oceans;
Physical geography of Central Asia;
Methods of teaching geography;
Fundamentals of geology and geomorphology;
Methods of physical and geographical research;
Geographical basis of environmental management;
The main problems of physical geography;
In the direction of "Hydrometeorology":
Physical geography of Uzbekistan;
In the direction of "Hydrology":
Physical geography of Uzbekistan;
Geomorphology, with the basics of geology.
In the direction of "Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre":
Fundamentals of geology and geomorphology;
Physical geography of Uzbekistan.
In addition, the department is charged with conducting field training practices in general physical geography, integrated, industrial and educational practice.
Field practice in general physical geography is conducted at the Charvak field base, covering an area of 3,2 hectares and consisting of five buildings for 400 places.
On the basis there is an opportunity to conduct hydrological, meteorological, glaciological, geodesic, cartographic, geomorphological observations, monitoring of natural and man-made hazardous processes. From this base, you can organize scientific expeditions to the nearby Pskem and Ugam ranges.
In the specialty of the master 5A140602 - Geography (on the object of study) the following courses are taught:
• the study of geosystems;
• landscape planning;
• environmental management strategy;
• the study of the geosphere.
Collaboration with young researchers
Comprehensive internships are held in the regions of Uzbekistan, and internships are conducted in various organizations and institutions on the topic of final qualifying work selected by students. The pedagogical practice is conducted in secondary schools, academic lyceums and vocational colleges in the city of Tashkent.
Currently, members of the department conduct research in the following areas:
• Geographical basis of the interaction of man and nature;
• Study, mapping and physiographic zoning of landscapes of Uzbekistan;
• Study of the geo-ecological conditions of the territory of Uzbekistan;
• Study of the effect of neotectonic movements on natural complexes;
• Toponymy and geographical terminology;
• Creation of textbooks, educational, educational-methodical grants and curricula for general educational, secondary special and higher educational institutions.
The department has an educational-methodical study "Globus" named after Kh.H.Hasanov. A unique relief-landscape globe is installed here. The weight of the globe is 490 kg, the horizontal scale is 1 cm 70 km, the vertical scale is 1 cm 2 km. Training sessions are held here, various meetings and conversations with young people are organized.
Unique relief landscape globe
In subsequent years, the department staff worked on the following topics:
1) OT-F6-062 - Investigation of some regularities of hydrological and physiographic processes in the Aral Sea basin;
2) OT-F6-063- Evolution of the geological history of the development of the Quaternary period of Uzbekistan;
3) 5-013 “Identification of stratigraphic criteria for buried soils of loess Pleistocene deposits of the orogenic zone of Uzbekistan for geological surveying”;
4) 8-2 "Creating a map of ecotourism districts and routes of Uzbekistan."
5) No. 1/2010 “Morphostructural and morphometric analysis of the area of gold mining enterprises (Chadak and Angren ZIF)” (together with GIDROINGEO).
6) No. OT-ID / 11-8-2 “Creation and publication of environmental maps of the Tashkent region”;
7) “Monitoring of border areas of Uzbekistan in places of impact of mining, processing and storing waste of mining and metallurgical enterprises of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan” (together with GIDROINGEO).
8) OT-ATab-2018-63 “Comprehensive study of avalanche processes in active regions of the Republic of Uzbekistan based on remote sensing and geo-information technologies (in the Chirchik river basin)”.
9) No. 9063- "Geographical zoning of the Republic of Uzbekistan on renewable energy sources".
The current composition of the department:
1.Mirakmalov M.T. - Ph.D., associate professor, head of the department.
2. Sabitova N.I. - Ph.D., professor.
3. Abdunazarov U.K. - Ph.D., associate professor
4. Nikandambaeva Kh.B. - Ph.D., associate professor.
5. Ibragimova R.A. - Ph.D., associate professor.
6. Khakimov K.A. – teacher
7. Boimurodov D.U. – teacher
8. Ergasheva Yu.H. – teacher
9. Shamuratova N.T. - Ph.D., associate professor (part-time worker).
10. Sharipov S.M. - Ph.D., associate professor (part-time worker).
Honored Scientists of Uzbekistan, who in different years worked at the department:
Yu.A. Skvortsov- Ph.D., professor.
L.N. Babushkin- Ph.D., professor.
N.D. Dalimov-Ph.D., associate professor.
Kh.H.Hasanov- Doctor of Geological Sciences, Professor.
N.A. Kogai - Doctor of Geological Sciences, Professor.
Currently, the department employs 8.25 pieces. Employees, of which 7.25 pcs. on a budgetary basis, including 1 doctor (1.0 units), 4 candidates of sciences (3.5 units). The scientific potential is 70% (62.5% of the core state). The average age of the faculty is 52.4 years.
Heads of the Department of Physical Geography
Korzhenevsky N.L. (1935-1959) - Doctor of Geographical Sciences, Professor, Honored Scientist of Uzbekistan.
Babushkin L.N. (1959-1975) - Doctor of Geographical Sciences, Professor, Honored Scientist of Uzbekistan.
Kogai N.A. (1975-1983) - Doctor of Geographical Sciences, Professor, Honored Scientist of Uzbekistan.
Khasanov Kh.H. (1983-1985) - Doctor of Geography, Professor, Honored Scientist of Uzbekistan.
Mamatkulov M. (1986-1987) - doctor of geographical sciences, professor.
Mamedov E.D. (1987-1993) - Doctor of Geographical Sciences, Professor.
Zakirov Sh.S. (1993-1997) - Candidate of Geographical Sciences, Associate Professor.
Rafikov A.A. (1998-2000) - doctor of geographical sciences, professor.
Zakirov Sh.S. (2001-2004) - Candidate of Geographical Sciences, Associate Professor.
Nigmatov A.N. (2004-2005) - Doctor of Geographical Sciences, Professor.
Mirakmalov M.T. (2005-2013) - Candidate of Geographical Sciences, Associate Professor.
Shamuratova N.T. (2013-2014) - Candidate of Geographical Sciences, Associate Professor.
Mirakmalov M.T. (since 2018) - Candidate of Geographical Sciences, Associate Professor.
Samples works of staff of the department